Schaum's Outline of Numerical Analysis: A Complete Guide for Students and Teachers
we performed a monophyly test of all groups by using information from two genes (18s rdna and 28s rdna). to obtain the best result for each analysis, a merged matrix was used (grebennikov and maddison 2005). we used our data for a test of monophyly for bembidiina in three ways: (1) only considering bembidiina excluding phrypeus, (2) including phrypeus, and (3) considering only phrypeus, which does not form a grade. our results support the hypothesis that bembidiina excluding phrypeus is not monophyletic for both 18s rdna and 28s rdna sequences. results from 28s rdna show support for monophyly of the group excluding phrypeus.
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although our data do not show significant support for monophyly of euryphidina based on any molecular data, we do support the grouping of the tribe in subfamily euryphidina. this is an example of a case where the topology of the group is inferred by molecular data alone, and the morphological evidence confirms the results. both the wingless and 18s rdna analyses support monophyly of the group, and the combined matrix shows strong support. however, the 28s rdna data show strong support for monophyly of babyloniini and non-monophyly of euryphidina. we conducted three tests: (1) including phrypeus, (2) including phrypeus, and (3) excluding phrypeus.